How do we assess Social and Economic values in our region?
Today, The Great Barrier Reef is recognised as a global icon delivering essential ecosystem, economic and cultural services to local residents and visitors from around the world who are drawn to the Reef for its natural wonder (GBRMPA, 2018). Understanding this dynamic relationship between people and the natural environment is increasingly recognised as critical for achieving conservation and sustainable human use goals (Marshall and Curnock, 2018). This relationship is described as the ‘human dimension’ of environmental management.
To assess social and economic indicators of the human dimensions, the Social and Economic Long-Term Monitoring Program (SELTMP) was established using funding provided by the Australian Government, in partnership with the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), the Great Barrier Reef Foundation (GBRF) and the NQ Dry Tropics Ltd Natural Resource Management organisation, led by researchers from CSIRO and James Cook University (JCU). The SELTMP comprises a series of survey questions, to identify the perceptions held by local residents and tourists regarding the condition and management of the GBR and its associated waterways, and their individual capacity to take action to make positive environmental changes for these systems. The survey also assesses perceptions of the values, wellbeing and economic opportunity derived explicitly from the Reef. Monitoring how the community value and interact with the Reef helps identify vulnerabilities which may be influenced by changes in environmental condition, climate change, regulatory frameworks and culture (CSIRO, 2019). For example, if the community derives good wellbeing benefits from the GBR, they may be vulnerable to experiencing reduced wellbeing after disturbance events which negatively impact environmental condition, such as coral bleaching.
To assess social and economic indicators at the regional level, only survey responses from local residents within the reporting zone were included in the assessment. A total of 283 people across the Mackay-Whitsunday region participated in the survey (113 in the Mackay region and 170 in the Whitsunday region), from a total population of approximately 151,300. The results of the 2017 SELTMP survey are represented in the table below. Data is presented per Local Government Area (LGA) (Mackay Regional Council or Whitsunday Regional Council), and at the regional level (Mackay-Whitsunday LGA’s combined).
What is the Data Showing?
The most recent assessment was reported in the Partnership’s 2018 report card (released in 2019). The results of this report indicated that the community derived good value and wellbeing benefits from the GBR, but also perceived condition and management of the GBR (and its associated waterways) to be very poor to moderate, respectively. Despite these perceptions of poor condition and management of waterways and the Reef, the community perceived the GBR to provide very good economic opportunity for the region. Overall, the community graded their individual capacity to effect positive environmental change poorly.
For more information on how our region is responding and what you can do to improve waterway health, click here to visit our Partnership’s 2018 management response report. Stay tuned for the 2019 management response product, set to be published later in 2020.
Regional Economy Snapshot: By the Numbers
The 2019 report card looks at how our regional economies have changed since 2013/2014 (the release of our pilot 2014 report card). Future report cards will likely capture the impact of global economic drivers felt in 2014, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
Economic Highlight: Regional Tourism
As seen in Figure 1 below, tourism expenditure in the Mackay-Whitsunday region increased steadily between 2014/15 and 2018/19. While these figures will change in 2020 with the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, this increase highlights the economic importance of our Region’s tourism industry.
Figure 1. Economic ‘snapshot’ of sugarcane crop, commodities, commercial fishing, and tourism expenditure in the Mackay-Whitsunday-Isaac region. Information retrieved from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, North Queensland Bulk Ports, and Tourism Research Australia.
Social value scores
Table 1. Regional and Local Government Area (Whitsunday Regional Council and Mackay Regional Council) scores for indicator categories that make up the social value scores for the 2018 report card. ‘All waterways’ is an overall score of water body types (freshwater, estuary and beaches, and marine and reef) for indicators relating to perceptions of condition and perception of management of region’s waterways.
|Perception of condition of region’s waterways||Perception of management of region’s waterways|
|Location||Freshwater||Estuary and Beaches||Marine and Reef||All Waterways||Freshwater||Marine and Reef||All Waterways||Perception of non-monetary values derived from GBR||Perception of wellbeing derived from GBR||Perception of individual capacity to act|
|Whitsunday Regional Council average||4.3||5.4||4.8||4.8||5.8||6.2||6.0||7.8||7.5||7.0|
|Mackay Regional Council average||3.9||5.4||5.4||4.9||5.8||6.3||6.1||7.6||7.2||6.8|
Economic value scores
Table 2. Regional and Local Government Area (Whitsunday Regional Council and Mackay Regional Council) scores for the indicators and index that make up the Economic values for the 2018 report card. Perceived economic opportunities delivered to the GBR is the overall score of economic values and is derived by averaging economic value indicator categories.
|Location||Perception of opportunities to attract visitors||Perception of opportunity for scientific discoveries||Perception of fresh local seafood||Perception of economic value||Perception of economic opportunities delivered by GBR|
|Whitsunday Regional Council average||8.8||8.5||7.1||9.5||8.5|
|Mackay Regional Council average||8.8||8.3||8.0||9.2||8.6|